These design principles are key to reducing solid waste throughout the lifecycle. The principles can be categorized into three stages of a complete product lifecycle:
Pre-use: involves all the steps from cradle (the origin of the materials) to the customer's door; manufacturing/production, distribution and sale.
During Use: the goal of creating a product or package is to fill a need. Effective design will minimize waste during use.
Post Use: the new paradigm of resource recovery prevents and reduces waste by encouraging all materials to re-enter useful life after their first run of production and use.