The National Zero Waste Council Circular Economy Working Group commissioned circular economy case studies relevant to demonstrate circular economy business models, as identified in the Accenture report, Circular Advantage.

Business Models



Circular Supplies: Provide renewable energy, bio based- or fully recyclable input material to replace single-lifecycle inputs


Resource Recovery: Recover useful resources/energy out of disposed products or by-products


Product Life Extension: Extend working lifecycle of products and components by repairing, upgrading and reselling


Sharing Platforms: Enable increased utilization rate of products by making possible shared use/access/ownership


Product as a Service*: Offer product access and retain ownership to internalise benefits of circular resource productivity

*Can be applied to product flows in any part of the value chain
Circular Advantage:Innovation in Business Models and Technologies

Source: Accenture, 2014, Circular Advantage: Innovative Business Models and Technologies to Create Value in a World without Limits to Growth

Case Studies



Enterra Feed Corporation Feed Corporation#9e0b0f
Enviro Image Solutions Image Solutions#ed1d24
Nico Spacecraft Spacecraft#000000
Toronto Tool Library Tool Library#6d6e71




BMW Drive Now Drive Now#d1d3d4
Philips Light as a Service Light as a Service#d1d3d4
Rent frock Repeat frock Repeat#d1d3d4


Case Study Analysis

The case studies were analyzed for common themes to understand opportunities for innovating and scaling circular economy business models and a number of key themes were identified.

Key Themes